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Scopoletin – an anti-hyperglycemic Coumarin from the fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Star fruit)

Authors:

M. D. J. Wijayabandara ,

University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, LK
About M. D. J.
B. Pharm Degree Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences
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M. I. Choudhary,

University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, PK
About M. I.
H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry and Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
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M. D. L. O. Wijayabandara,

University of Colombo, Colombo, LK
About M. D. L. O.
Institute of Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
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A. Adhikari

University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, PK
About A.
H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry and Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
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Abstract

Purpose: Averrhoa carambola L. has a long history of its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, intermittent fevers, intestinal worms, scabies and inflammatory conditions. The fresh fruit of A. carambola is very popular in Sri Lanka for its glucose-lowering effect and is taken as good remedy for diabetes. The present study was carried out to isolate and characterize anti-hyperglycemic principles of the fruit of A. carambola to obtain additional scientific evidence for its usage in traditional medicine in the management of diabetes.

 

Methods: The dried and powdered fruits of A. carambola were successively extracted with n-hexane and CH2Cl2 using soxhlet apparatus. The CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, eluting in a stepwise gradient with hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) mixtures. The fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc (60:40) yielded a mixture which with preparative thin-layer chromatography afforded a pure compound designated as JW-AC-3. The structure of JW-AC-3 was elucidated on the basis of its Ultra- violet spectroscopy (UV), Infra-Red spectroscopy (IR), Mass Spectroscopy (MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) including Distortionless Enhancement Polarization Transfer (DEPT), Homonuclear Shift-Corrilation Spectroscopy (COSY), Nuclear Overhauser Spectroscopy (NOESY), Hetero Multiple Bond Connectivities (HMBC) and Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Coherence (HMQC) experiments and direct comparison with reported data.

 

Results: JW-AC-3 was identified as scopoletin by direct comparison of its spectral data with reported data of scopoletin. To our knowledge, scopoletin has not been reported from A. carambola. Scopoletin has been shown to possess significant anti-hyperglycemic activity by previous workers. The results of this study clearly indicate that the majority of the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruits of A. carambola could be attributed to scopoletin. The results also provide for the use of scopoletin as a bio-marker in the standardization and quality control of products derived from the fruits of A. carambola.

 

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate potential use of scopoletin in the development of drugs of natural origin in the treatment of diabetes. The results could also be used in the rationalization of ethnomedical use of the fruits of A. carambola.
How to Cite: Wijayabandara, M.D.J. et al., (2017). Scopoletin – an anti-hyperglycemic Coumarin from the fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Star fruit). Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka. 7, pp.51–56. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/pjsl.v7i0.22
Published on 08 Aug 2017.
Peer Reviewed

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